Antibiotics belong to the group of antibacterial drugs with a wide spectrum of action. Active substances can inhibit the development of pathogenic organisms (microbes), reduce their activity and completely destroy. Antibiotics are mainly of natural origin (animal, plant, microbial), but the pharmaceutical industry has established the production of synthetic analogues of drugs. Depending on the direction of their action, antibiotics are conditionally divided into the following groups:
- Antibacterial drugs. They are used to treat intestinal, genitourinary, respiratory, cardiological and neurosurgical infections;
- Antifungal agents. Used for the treatment of diseases of the skin, oral cavity, mycoses, genital and intestinal infections;
- Antitumor antibiotics. Affect benign and malignant tumors of bacterial etiology.
According to its spectrum of action, all antibiotics (Antibiotics) can be divided into bactericidal (lead to the death of pathogenic microorganisms) and bacteriostatic (block the system of reproduction and development of bacteria).
Methods of use and varieties of antibiotics
The release forms are tablet, powder, in the form of drops, syrups, rectal and vaginal suppositories, solutions for intramuscular and intravenous administration. The most common way to use antibiotics is the oral method. For the rapid entry of the active substance into the blood, injection or intravenous drip is used. To treat local infections, use ointments and creams containing antibacterial drugs. Antibiotics have a certain classification into groups, depending on their origin and chemical structure. Certain types of bacteria are more sensitive to a certain group, so when planning treatment, they select the appropriate antibiotic that has a great therapeutic effect.
The effectiveness of the treatment will depend on the correct choice of the drug, therefore it is better to entrust this prerogative to the attending physician. When choosing the right drug, many factors should be considered:
- The sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms to antibiotics;
- Individual patient tolerance to the drug;
- The state of the digestive system, the presence of concomitant diseases and the simultaneous use of other drugs;
- The presence of contraindications for taking antibiotics and allergic reactions in the patient.
Antibiotics should be taken after prescribing them by your doctor. An important condition for effective treatment is compliance with dosages and the full course of treatment. After 2-3 days of admission, the patient may feel completely healthy, however, this condition will be misleading, and premature termination of the course of treatment can lead to addiction in the microorganism, which will make the further use of antibiotics ineffective. If allergic reactions or side effects caused by taking antibiotics appear, the course should be stopped. Some groups of antibacterial drugs have a prolonged effect, that is, they accumulate in the body and have a therapeutic effect for a long time. Among the available side effects, there is often a digestive disorder associated with the destruction of the intestinal flora. After taking antibiotics, the patient should restore it. Antibacterial drugs effectively treat diseases that were considered fatal before the invention of antibiotics, significantly extending the life of the population of the whole world.